Success Template for Velvet Revolutions in the post-Soviet Space


პოსტსაბჭოთა სივრცეში ხავერდოვანი რევოლუციების წარმატების შაბლონი.

აბსტრაქტი

ხავერდოვანმა რევოლუციებმა მნიშვნელოვნად შეცვალეს პოსტსაბჭოთა სივრცეში არსებული პოლიტიკური რეალობა. სომხეთში დატრიალებულმა მოვლენებმა კი ნათელყო, რომ მექანიზმს ჯერ
კიდევ შეუძლია ფუნდამენტურად შეძრას რეგიონი. მეტიც, შეგვიძლია, დავასკვნათ, რომ გამოვლინდა ამ არეალში ხავერდოვანი რევოლუციების შესაძლო წარმატების რამდენიმე საჭირო წინაპირობა, როგორიცაა საზოგადოების კონსოლიდაცია, გარე მოთამაშეების მხარდაჭერა ან ჩაურევლობა (ინერტულობა) და ძალაუფლების მშვიდობიანი გადაცემა. წარმატება გააზრებულია, როგორც რევოლუციური ძალის უნარი, აიძულოს არსებული რეჟიმი, გადადგეს, უნარი, თვითონ შეინარჩუნოს ძალაუფლება და, ამასთან, სახელმწიფოში შენარჩუნდეს წესრიგი და თავიდან აცილებულ იქნას დაპირისპირება (ძალადობა). სწორედ ეს იყო და დღესაც ეს წარმოადგენს ხავერდოვანი რევოლუციის უდიდეს უპირატესობას – რეჟიმის მშვიდობიანი გზითა და სახელმწიფოსთვის ნაკლები დანახარჯებით ცვლილება. საქართველოში, უკრაინაში, ყირგიზეთსა და სომხეთში მომხდარი რევოლუციების შედარებითი ანალიზი ცხადყოფს, რომ იმ შემთხვევებში, როდესაც ზემოთ ხსენებული სამივე ცვლადი დაკმაყოფილებულია, ხდება ძველი ხელისუფლების ცვლილება და ახლის გამყარება; სხვა შემთხვევაში სახეზეა არსებული ხელისუფალის გადაგდება სახელმწიფოსთვის დიდი ზიანის მიყენების გზით, ან არსებული მთავრობა ინარჩუნებს ძალაუფლებას, ან კიდევ, როგორც ყირგიზეთში, ხდება პოსტრევოლუციური მთავრობის ჩამოგდება და ძველი წესრიგის დაბრუნება.

საკვანძო სიტყვები: რევოლუცია, რეჟიმის ცვლილება, პოლიტიკა, უსაფრთხოება, პოსტსაბჭოთა სივრცე.

Titile: Success Template for Velvet/Colored Revolutions in the post-Soviet Space
Author: Archil Sikharulidze
Type: Conference Proceedings
Pages: 51-61
Publisher: Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (TSU)
Institute: Institute of Neighbourhood Studies
Year: 2021
Place: Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia
ISBN: 978-9941-13-986-4 (PDF)

Citation: Sikharulidze, A., 2021. Success Template for Velvet/Colored Revolutions in the post-Soviet Space. V International Scientific Conference “Politics around the Caucasus” hel by Institute for Georgia’s Neighbourhood Studies, Conference Proceedings, Tbilisi, pp. 51-61.

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Georgia Beyond “Radical Europeanness”: Undiscovered Directions of Foreign Policy


Abstract

Georgia’s turn to the West signifi cantly aff ected its geopolitical and foreign policies. The author shares the view expressed by Georgian scholars that the country’s continued commitment to the Western vector is a direct consequence of ideas expressed by political elites (constructivist theory) and their self-identifi cation as “European,” coupled with Western-style liberal democracy as a social order preference (liberal theory). Georgia’s political elites are driven by the concept of “Europeanness” and thus focus primarily on the state’s aspirations to be integrated into the “Western world,” which is pushing the state towards European and North-Atlantic integration. Georgian elites believe that institutional reunifi cation with “European family” under the NATO defence shield will not only deter Moscow but will fi nally put an end to Moscow’s attempts to bring the post-soviet state under its control. Moreover, due to the tensions between the generalized West and Russian Federation, the Kremlin’s aspirations to stop what it perceives as a geopolitical expansion of the West to the east, Georgia’s approach has become even more radical. The paper argues that the concept of “Europeanness” has been transformed into “radical Europeanness,” meaning that the political elites maintain economic cooperation with non-Western countries, but there is no proactive foreign policy beyond that, even with its most important strategic partners, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkey. In spite Tbilisi enjoys trade relations with these countries, the existing level of political and military cooperation between them conceals signifi cant bilateral challenges. Additionally, this approach is perfectly refl ected in Georgia’s relations with China, when the country’s political elites pushed for free trade, without attention to the political and geopolitical aspects of economic cooperation. Thus, Georgia – China relations are also the part of research interest in this paper, as the free trade regime between the two countries is subject to serious scrutiny after the Donald Trump administration made it clear that Washington would not welcome Chinese economic and geopolitical expansion in Georgia.

Keywords: Georgia, “radical Europeanness”, identity, foreign policy, elites, social order.

Titile: Georgia Beyond “Radical Europeanness”: Undiscovered Directions of Foreign Policy
Author: Archil Sikharulidze
Type: Peer-Reviewed
Pages: 91-108
Publisher: MGIMO
Journal: International Analytics
Year: 2021
Place: Moscow, Russian Federation
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46272/2587-8476-2020-11-2-91-108 

Citation: Sikharulidze A.Т. Georgia Beyond “Radical Europeanness”: Undiscovered Directions of Foreign Policy. Journal of International Analytics. 2020;11(2):91-108. https://doi.org/10.46272/2587-8476-2020-11-2-91-108

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The Unified National Entrance Examinations and Social Cohesion in Georgia


Abstract

Georgia’s successful and broadly praised unified national entrance examinations (UNEE) reform is being fundamentally re-thought now. The project actually aimed at eradication of corruption managed to reach its basic goals but showed poor results in ensuring more complex tasks later on. Despite initial positive effects on social cohesion, it couldn’t fully contribute to the challenge due to various factors. Particularly, the latest researches prove that without systemic approach with strong focus on socio-economic determinants, UNEEs is incapable of significantly improving existing detachment between different ethnic and other groups in Georgian society. Though, UNEEs increased accessibility of higher education, families with poor income, youth in regions and representatives of ethnic minorities are still in disadvantage. We can outline at least three macro and two micro-variables that ensure ineffectiveness of UNEEs and continue maintaining low social cohesion: poverty, inequality, environment (macro) and school, tutoring (micro).

Абстракт

У тезах аналізується реформа Єдиного національного вступного іспиту (ЄНВІ) в Грузії через призму процесу посилення соціальної згуртованості. Стверджується, що, незважаючи на початковий позитивний ефект, ЄНВІ не зміг суттєво плинути на цей процес через такі чинники, як бідність, нерівність, довкілля, школа та навчання. Ці макро- та мікро- фактори утримують соціальну згуртованість у Грузії у нестабільному стані.

Keywords: socia cohesion, unified entrance examinations, Georgia, higher education reform.

Titile: The Unified National Entrance Examinations and Social Cohesion in Georgia
Author: Archil Sikharulidze
Type: Conference Proceedings
Pages: 294-296
Publisher: Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs, MIA
Year: 2020
Place: Kharkov, Ukraine
UDK (УДК): 340.12:330.101:342.734 (477)

Citation: Sikharulidze, A., 2020. The Unified National Entrance Examinations and Social Cohesion in Georgia. Modern Challenges of Legislative, Economic and Social Development of the State / International Scientific-Practical Conference / MIA Ukraine, Kharkiv. Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs (KNUIA); Criminological Association of Ukraine; Public union “Center for prevention and countering corruption”; Public council under the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine – Kharkiv: KNUIA, pp. 294 – 296.

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Policy Analysis: Unified Entrance Examinations Reform in Georgia


Анализ Политики: Реформа Единого Государственного Экзамена (ЕГЭ) в Грузии

Реформа высшего образования в Грузии считается одним из успешных примеров борьбы с коррупцией; особо важную роль в ней занимает формирование и внедрение Единого Государственного Экзамена (ЕГЭ). Именно Грузия стала наглядным примером того, как политическая воля наравне с хорошо спланированной и администрированной реформой могут привести к абсолютному искоренению коррупционных схем в системе высшего образования, которыми она славилась. На сегодняшний момент, ЕГЭ находится на пороге революционных перемен и существует возможность полноценно оценить успехи и неудачи многолетней реформы.

Ключевые слова: ЕГЭ, Грузия, реформа, система высшего образования, единый государственный экзамен.

Titile: Policy Analysis: Unified Entrance Examinations Reform in Georgia
Author: Archil Sikharulidze
Type: Conference Proceedings
Pages: 149-158
Publisher: Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs, MIA
Year: 2019
Place: Kharkov, Ukraine
UDK (УДК): 343.1:343.35 (477)(082)

Citation: Sikharulidze, A., 2019. Policy Analysis: Unified Entrance Examinations Reform in Georgia. Specificities of appliance of anticorruption legislation: from investigation to court judgement: collection of report thesis of international scientific-practical conference / MIA Ukraine, Kharkiv. Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs (KNUIA); Criminological Association of Ukraine; Public union “Center for prevention and countering corruption”; Public council under the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine – Kharkiv: KNUIA, pp. 149 – 157 (Сихарулидзе, А., 2019. Анализ Политики: Реформа Единого Государственного Экзамена (ЕГЭ) в Грузии. Особенности применения антикоррупционного законодательства: от расследования до приговора суда: сборник тезисов докладов международной научно-практической конференции (17 октября 2019 года, г. Харьков) / МВД Украины, Харьков. Харьковский национальный университет внутренних дел (ХНУВД); Криминологическая ассоциация Украины; Общественный союз «Центр предотвращения и противодействия коррупции»; Общественный Совет при Министерстве внутренних дел Украины – Харьков: ХНУВД, 2019. – 216 с.).

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Russia as a Factor of Internal Politics of Georgia


Россия как Фактор Внутренней Политики Грузии.

Abstract

Russian-Georgian relations are in stagnation and all attempts to “reset” them have failed till nowadays. But this reality was not always in place and in the beginning of 2000s both countries hoped for better collaborative future; moreover, there was mutually shared political will. Nowadays we may already openly argue that the states were actually unable to build interstate relations with respect to national interests. Georgia was desperately distancing itself from everything linked with Soviet and, in general, from the so-called “Russian world” while trying to integrate into the Western institutions. As for the Kremlin, it was going into opposite direction opting for national self-determination and planning to come back to global political arena as a counterweight to the West. These fundamental differences in the area of the nation-building and, of course, mercantile political interests of local political elites have led to dramatic escalation and the war. Unsatisfied with the failed “reset” policy and being afraid to lose political power, president of Georgia M. Saakashvili initiated process of “securitisation” of Russia. He and his political allies transformed Moscow from objective threat to the state’s national security and territorial integrity into a political construction, popular political method of dealing with opponents. Nowadays, “Russia” is used as the most popular and effective mechanism of political confrontation for power while concepts of the “fifth column” and the so-called “pro-Russian forces” are used by almost everyone in order to discredit adversaries and, in general, handle with dissenters.

Абстракт

Российско-грузинские отношения находятся в стадии стагнации; все попытки их «перезагрузить» до сих пор проваливались. Однако так было не всегда. В начале 2000-х гг. в Тбилиси и в Москве надеялись на лучшее совместное будущее. Более того, обе стороны демонстрировали политическую волю к улучшению отношений. Сегодня же можно открыто заявить о том, что оба государства не в состоянии наладить отношения с учетом своих национальных интересов. Грузия надеялась максимально дистанцироваться от всего «советского» и интегрироваться в западные институты. Россия, наоборот, встала на путь национального самопознания и планирует вернуться на глобальную политическую арену в качестве противовеса Западу. Фундаментальные расхождения в мировоззрении и меркантильные интересы политических элит привели к быстрой эскалации и войне. Недовольный провалившейся «перезагрузкой» и угрозой потери власти, президент Грузии М. Саакашвили инициировал процесс секьюритизации России; он и его политические сторонники превратили Москву из объективной угрозы национальной безопасности и территориальной целостности страны в политическую конструкцию, политический метод борьбы с оппонентами. Сегодня «фактор России» является самым популярным и действенным механизмом грузинской политической борьбы за власть, а концепции «пятой колонны» и «пророссийских сил» используются повсеместно для дискредитации противников и всех несогласных.

Keywords: securitization, Russia, Georgia, Rose Revolution, Georgian-Russian relations, the reset policy, state-building, nation-building.

Ключевые слова: секьюритизация, Россия, Грузия, Революция Роз, Российско-Грузинские отношения, политика перезагрузки, выстраивание идентичности, формирование государства.

Titile: Russia as a Factor of Internal Politics of Georgia
Author: Archil Sikharulidze
Type: VAK (RU)
Pages: 135-153
Publisher: Institute of Eastern Studies (RAN)
Journal: Central Eurasia
Year: 2019
Place: Moscow, Russian Federation
ISSN: 2618-7051

Citation: Sikharulidze, A., 2019. Russia as a Factor of Internal Politics of Georgia, Journal of Central Eurasia, Institute of Eastern Studies (RAN), 1 (3), Moscow, pp. 135-153 (Сихарулидзе, А., 2019. Россия как Фактор Внутренней Политики Грузии, Журнал “Центральная Евразия”, Институт Востоковедения РАН, 1 (3), Москва, стр. 135-153).

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Evolution of Russia’s National Security Strategy and its Implications


Abstract

By the end of December 2015 president of Russian Federation Vladimir Putin signed a decree establishing new National Security Strategy. For the last 25 years of state existence it is the fifth document that openly emphasizes rivalry between Russia and the West. Moreover, it is mainly focused on state’s global geopolitical aims.

The article argues that Russia went through drastic changes and dealt with significant challenges. Consequently, the idea of national security, as well as country’s priorities were in continuous reformation. The first document focused on an establishment of a state in general and its integration into the Western world. Boris Yeltsin’s unsuccessful governance was reflected in the following strategy published in 2000. The new government lead by Vladimir Putin was trying to further develop state institutions. Exponential raise of Russia as a state and build-up of power vertical re-oriented state priorities from domestic affairs to global interests. Russia’s direct rivalry with US and contradicting views on the future of international relations were not reflected in the strategy till recently. But events in Ukraine and Syrian conflict pushed Russian government to finally recognize it officially. It is interesting that despite evolution of Russia’s national strategy its implication for Georgia was immutable. After the collapse of Soviet Union Russia actively participated in Georgia’s internal affairs. Moreover, despite attempts to be integrated into the Western world it contributed to the conflicts in separatist regions of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali. The newest National Security Strategy that recognizes sovereign states of Abkhazia and the so-called South Ossetia just reflects realities in which Georgia exists for years.

Keywords: Russia, Georgia, National Security Strategy.

Titile: Evolution of Russia’s National Security Strategy and its Implications
Author: Archil Sikharulidze
Type: Conference Proceedings
Pages: 161-175
Publisher: Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (TSU)
Institute: Institute of Neighbourhood Studies
Year: 2017
Place: Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia
ISBN: 978-9941-13-602-3 (PDF)

Citation: Sikharulidze, A., 2017. Evolution of Russia’s National Security Strategy and its Implications. Politics around the Caucasus. II International Scientific Conference. Proceedings. Institute for Georgia’s Neighborhood Studies, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University. TSU Press. Tbilisi, Georgia. ISBN 978-9941-13-602-3, pp. 161 – 175.

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Islam in Georgia and Integration Policy


Ислам в Грузии и Политика Интеграции.

Abstract

The article’s focus is on Georgia’s Muslim community, the challenges that it faces and the approaches that the government pursues as a part of its integration policy.

Абстракт

Статья посвящена анализу мусульманской общины в Грузии и стоящих перед ней вызовов, а также политических подходов правительства страны к проблемам интеграции.

Keywords: Islam, Georgia, integration policy.

Ключевые слова: Ислам, Грузия, политика интеграции.

Titile: Islam in Georgia and Integration Policy
Author: Archil Sikharulidze
Type: VAK (RU)
Language: Russian
Pages: 71-86
Publisher: IMEMO RAN
Journal: Pathways to Peace and Security
Year: 2016
Place: Moscow, Russian Federation
ISSN: 2307-1494
DOI: 10.20542/2307-1494-2016-2-71-86

Citation: Sikharulidze, A., Urushadze, M., 2016. Islam in Georgia and Integration Policy. Pathways to Peace and Security, №2 (51). IMEMO. Moscow, Russian Federation. ISSN 2307-1494, pp. 71-86.

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Islam in Georgia: Policy and Integration


Ислам в Грузии: Политика и Интеграция

ისლამი საქართველოში: პოლიტიკა და ინტეგრაცია

Abstract

The present research aims at examining issues related to the integration of Muslim communities, raising awareness of the wider public on these issues, and developing recommendations for respective stakeholders.

Title: Islam in Georgia: Policy and Integration
Authors: Archil Sikharulidze, Maia Urushadze, Gelma Khmaladze, Rauf Chichinadze
Type: Research Report
Pages: 80
Publisher: Centre for Cultural Relations – Caucasian House
Year: 2016
Place: Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia
ISBN: 978-9941-9510-1-5

Citation: Sikharulidze, A., Urushadze, M., Khmaladze, G., Chichinadze, R., 2016. Islam in Georgia: Policy and Integration. Research Report. Centre for Cultural Relations – Caucasian House. Tbilisi, pp. 80

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Абстракт

Цель данного исследования – изучить существующие проблемы с точки зрения интеграции мусульманского населения страны, повысить осведомленность грузинского общества о жизни общины и выработать соответствующие рекомендации для всех вовлеченных в этот процесс сторон.

Название: Ислам в Грузии: Политика и Интеграция
Авторы: Арчил Сихарулидзе, Майя Урушадзе, Гела Хмаладзе, Рауф Чичинадзе
Тип: Исследование
Страницы: 80
Издатель: Центр Культурных Отношений – Кавказский Дом
Год: 2016
Место: Тбилиси, Грузия
ISBN: 978-9941-9510-0-8

Цитирование: Сихарулидзе, А., Урушадзе, М., Хмаладзе, Г., Чичинадзе, Р., 2016. Ислам в Грузии: Политика и Интеграция. Центр Культурных Отношений – Кавказский Дом. Тбилиси, стр. 80

СКАЧАТЬ

აბსტრაქტი

აღნიშნული კვლევის მიზანია საქართველოში მუსლიმური თემის ინტეგრაციის კუთხით არსებული საკითხების შესწავლა, საზოგადოებაში ამ თემისადმი ცნობიერების ამაღლება და პროცესებში ჩართული აქტიორებისთვის შესაბამისი რეკომენდაციების შემუშავება.

დასახელება: ისლამი საქართველოში: პოლიტიკა და ინტეგრაცია
ავტორები: არჩილ სიხარულიძე, მაია ურუშაძე, გელა ხმალაძე, რაუფ ჭიჭინაძე
ტიპი: კვლევა
გვერდები: 104
გამომცემელი: კულტურულ ურთიერთობათა ცენტრი – კავკასიური სახლი
წელი: 2016
ადგილი: თბილისი, საქართველო
ISBN: 978-9941-400-98-8

ციტირება: სიხარულიძე, ა., ურუშაძე, მ., ხმალაძე, გ., ჭიჭინაძე, რ., 2016. ისლამი საქართველოში: პოლიტიკა და ინტეგრაცია. კვლევა. კულტურულ ურთიერთობათა ცენტრი – კავკასიური სახლი. თბილისი, გვ. 104

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